Comparing Ohio’s Proposed Algae Control Legislation
Senate and House bills on algae control differ
On March 10, the Ohio House of Representatives passed H.B. 61, a proposal to address Ohio’s toxic algae issues. Last month, the Ohio Senate approved a bill on the same issue, but with several points of difference. The two must now reconcile these differences and agree upon a plan for reducing the occurrence of toxic algae in Lake Erie, which they have stated they will soon accomplish. The House already began its hearings on the Senate bill on March 11.
Here's a summary of the similarities and variations between the two proposals.
Prohibitions of surface applications. Both bills prohibit the surface application of manure and fertilizer, defined as nitrogen or phosphorous, in the western Lake Erie basin on frozen ground, saturated soil, and when the local weather forecast for the application area contains greater than a 50% chance of precipitation exceeding one inch in a 12-hour period. The Senate version also prohibits the application of granular fertilizer with regard to weather conditions, and the House bill also prohibits reckless violation of EPA rules regarding the surface application of sewage sludge.
Exemptions from prohibitions. Both bills exempt a person from the above prohibitions for manure and fertilizer applications that are injected into the ground or applied on a growing crop. Each also contains an exemption for fertilizer that is incorporated into the soil within a certain time period; the House allows a 24-hour time period while the Senate allows 48 hours for incorporation of the fertilizer.
Exclusion from enforcement. The House bill allows a potential violator of the manure prohibitions to request assistance from ODNR, SWCD or other qualified persons on the development of technically feasible and economically reasonable measures that would cease or prevent violations; requires ODNR to assist with the request and set a schedule for implementing the measures; and prevents ODNR from enforcing violations if a person has made such a request, is receiving assistance or is implementing the measures. The Senate bill does not include these or similar exclusions from enforcement.
Enforcement of violations. If a person violates the prohibition against manure applications, the Senate authorizes ODNR to assess a civil penalty as determined by rulemaking and after allowing opportunity for a hearing. The House takes a "corrective action" approach, allowing ODNR to notify a violator and propose corrective actions within a specified time period, then to inspect for continued violations after the specified time period and determine whether violations are still occurring and a civil penalty should be assessed, with an opportunity for a hearing.
Review and sunset. The House bill requires a joint legislative committee review of the results of the prohibitions against fertilizer and manure applications and a report to the Governor of their findings and recommendations on whether to repeal or revise the prohibitions. The Senate version requires a joint review and report to the Governor after four years, but states that the prohibitions on fertilizer and manure applications will sunset after five years unless the committees jointly recommend continuing the prohibitions.
Agency coordinator. The Senate bill requires the EPA director to serve as the coordinator of harmful algae management and response and to develop plans, protocols and coordinated efforts to address harmful algae. The House proposal does not contain this or a similar provision.
Studies. In the Senate bill, the EPA is authorized to conduct studies of nutrient loading from point and nonpoint sources in the Lake Erie and Ohio River basins. The House bill does not contain this or a similar provision.
Healthy Lake Erie Fund. The House would not change the existing Healthy Lake Erie Fund, but the Senate proposes eliminating most current uses of the fund and revising it to allow the fund to be used for financial assistance with winter cover crops, edge of field testing, tributary monitoring and animal waste management and conservation measures in the western Lake Erie basin and for reduction of nutrient runoff as determined by ODNR’s Director.
Phosphorous monitoring. Both bills require certain publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) to conduct monthly monitoring of total and dissolved phosphorous by the end of 2016 and other POTWs to complete a study of their ability to reduce phosphorous, but the House bill would also require the Ohio EPA to modify NPDES permits to include these requirements.
Dredging. Both bills prohibit the deposit of dredged materials beginning July 1, 2020; the Senate applies the prohibition to Ohio’s entire portion of Lake Erie and its direct tributaries, while the House would limit the prohibition to the Maumee River basin.
Lead contamination. The House does not address lead contamination, but the Senate version prohibits the use in public water systems or water consumption facilities of certain plumbing supplies and materials that are not lead free and prohibits other actions related to lead pipes and fittings.
Emergency. The Senate version declares an emergency, allowing the legislation to be effective immediately upon passage, while the House bill does not declare an emergency.